9K11 Malutka/AT-3 Sagger
|Manufacturer:||FSUE KONSTRUKTORSKOYE BYURO MASHYNOSTROYENIYA - KBM|
|Product type:||Weapons & Weapon Systems|
|Name:||Anti-tank guided missile launcher|
The US/NATO designated AT-3A 'Sagger' (Russian industrial number 9K11, Russian name Malyutka Baby) entered service in 1963 with development being undertaken by the Kolomna KBM design bureau.
The main design principle chosen was efficiency, reliability, simple design and ease of operation. According to the design authority, the AT-3 'Sagger' ATGW system incorporates the most advanced engineering and technological solutions in the system design, including:
(1) use of a single channel missile control with a single gas dynamic relay actuator
(2) generation of a control signal is carried out by the ground control equipment while the commands are fed to the missile via a special purpose control micro-cable which results in extreme simplification of the missile on board equipment (absence of power supply units and receiving and amplifying devices)
(3) development and use of a special purpose low ohmic three wire communication cable
(4) implementation of a functional and modular design principle for the ground equipment
(5) wide use of plastics in components of the missile and transport and launching container ('suitcase')
(6) implementation of modern high technologies to produce missiles
According to Kolomna KBM, the innovate design solutions in combination with high producibility allowed them to create a system superior to all of its counterparts in combat effectiveness, operational simplicity and reliability which resulted in its wide proliferation all over the world.
Over 200,000 systems have been built and the simplicity of its design and overall effectiveness has triggered its unlicensed reverse engineering in numerous countries: by China as the Red Arrow 73 and Improved Red Arrow 73C with Semi-Automatic Command-to-Line of Sight (SACLOS) guidance, Iran (Raad and its Improved Raad version with probe), North Korea and Taiwan (as the Kuen Wu-1 with a more rounded warhead section).
The AT-3 'Sagger' has been used in many conflicts especially in the Middle East, where the system engaged and destroyed a significant number of Israeli MBTs during the 1973 Arab-Israel war.
The AT-3 'Sagger' is the most long lived and widespread ATGW system of its type in the world. This can be attributed to the repeated upgrades which advanced the system into the front line every time. These upgrades can be broken down into the following phases in terms of their realisation time and purpose: (1) Basic version
(a) 9M14 Malyutka (AT-3a 'Sagger') with Manual Command to Line of Sight (MLOS) guidance with command signals sent along a trailing wire (2) Series production phase upgrades
(a) the 9M14M Malyutka (AT-3b 'Sagger') entered service in 1964 and is the most common production model of the missile
(b) the 9M14P Malyutka (P = poluavtomaticheskiy, Russian for semi-automatic guidance, AT-3c 'Sagger') entered service in 1970 and used the SACLOS mode of guidance, to this purpose the missile mounted two beacons. An improved HEAT warhead was fitted capable of penetrating 460 mm of conventional steel armour
(c) the 9M14P1 Malyutka-P1 (AT-3c Sagger) is an improved variant of the 9M14P and incorporates an inertia fuze
(3) Post series production phase upgrades
These are implemented at the systems user request in order to bring missile performances into compliance with combat effectiveness requirements to counter modern armoured vehicles. These modifications can be carried out by local personnel at storage sites by means of:
(1) replacement of the warhead
(2) modifications of the booster and sustainer charge
(3) booster modification
(4) replacement of the communications wire bobbin. The upgrades are:
(1) the9M14-2,9M14P-2 Malyutka-3 (AT-3d Sagger) is a missile version with a heavier (3.5 kg) and more powerful warhead that increases armour penetration to 800 mm of steel armour and average speed to 130 m/s. The mounting dimension of a new warhead are the same as of the basic version. In the travelling position, the stand off probe is placed inside the warhead. The probe is extended by the operator when he mounts the missile onto the rail guide.
(2) the 9M14-2F, 9M14P-2F Malyutka-2F is a missile version with a high explosive warhead to defeat unarmoured material and personnel
(3) the 9M14-2M, 9M14P-2M Malyutka-2M is a missile version with a tandem HEAT warhead which weighs 4 kg and will penetrate 720 mm of armour protected by Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA).
These upgraded versions of the AT-3 Sagger can be fired from all existing launchers without their modifications.
- 9K11 man-portable 'suitcase' system
The operator of the three man manpack system carries the 9S415 joystick control unit and the attached 9Shl6 periscope sight. The second and third team members each carry a glass fibre suitcase that contains one 9M14 series missile. In addition, the 'suitcase' serves as a missile launcher base for the weapon and contains a small launcher rail that is attached to the top of the case. The launchers can be set up at distances of up to 15 m from the control unit with the link being maintained by a single cable.
A single joystick controller can control up to four launchers of the 9K11 system in consecutive order. Deployment time for the teams equipment is about 5 minutes.
The system has a 5 m dead zone since the missile is impossible to control for the first few seconds after launch. The gunner can control the 9M14 series by eye activities.
- 9P110 (6-round) 4x4 wheeled tank destroyer
Original wheeled tank destroyer based on BRDM-1 4x4 chassis which has long been phased out of service. This system carried six missiles in the ready to fire position on the launcher rails and eight reloads in the hull.
- 9P122 (6-round) 4x4 wheeled tank destroyer
Replacement for the 9P110 system and mounted on the BRDM-2 (GAZ-41-06) 4x4 chassis. Equipped to fire 9M14M (AT-3b) missiles with six in ready to fire position on launcher rails and eight reloads inside of hull.
- 9P133 (6-round) 4x4 wheeled tank destroyer
Later version of 9P122 with enlarged optical sight system to fire improved SACLOS 9M14P (AT-3c) and 9M14P1 (AT-3c) missiles. The vehicle carries six ready to fire missiles with another ten carried internally. The missiles can be both the9M14Pand9M14P1 type. The main guidance mode is SACLOS with the MLOS mode as a back-up alternative.
- As BMP-1 ICV and BMD-1 ACV armament
The 9K system is used as the secondary armament of the BMP-1 ICV and BMD-1 ACV. An external single rail launcher is fitted over the 73 mm main gun. The guidance optics are built into the gunner's IPN22 sight assembly. The joystick controller is kept under the gunner's turret seat until required. A total of three missiles are carried inside the vehicle for reloading with a fourth on the launch rail with reloading being accomplished manually through the turret hatch. The 9K11 system is also used on a number of other vehicles as secondary armament.
- 9K11 helicopter mounted systems
The 9K11 system has been fitted to a number of helicopter types including the Mil Mi-8TVK 'Hip-F'.
AT-3: production complete.
- Tracked M1985 light tank (single rail launcher - North Korea)
- Tracked AIFV (unknown Kuen Wu-1 launcher system - Taiwanese Army)
- Tracked BMD/BMD-1 (single-rail 'Sagger-A/C turret launcher- RFAS airborne units)
- Tracked BMP/BMP-1 (single-rail 'Sagger-A/C turret launcher-all BMP/BMP-1 users)
- Tracked Type 504 (twin retractable rail launcher - People's Liberation Army)
- Tracked WZ 501 (single-rail Red Arrow 73 turret launcher- People's Liberation Army)
- Tracked YW 309 (single-rail Red Arrow 73 turret launcher- People's Liberation Army)
- Tracked BVP M80A LT (two three-rail launchers - Yugoslav Army (Serbia/Montenegro))
- Tracked BVP M80A and M80AK (twin-rail turret launcher - with Yugoslav Army (Serbia/Montenegro))
- Tracked M-80 MICV (twin-rail turret launcher-Yugoslav Army (Serbia/Montenegro))
- Tracked BRM-23 reconnaissance vehicle (single-rail launcher- Bulgarian Army)
- Tracked BMP-23 infantry combat vehicle (single-rail launcher - Bulgarian Army)
- 8x8 TAB-77 (twin-rail turret launcher - Romanian Army)
- 8x8 OT-64 SKOT-2A (twin-rail turret launcher - Polish Army)
- 4x4 9P110 (BRDM-1 derivative with two three-rail 'Sagger-A/B' launchers - known users Romanian and RFAS armies
- 4x4 9P122 ('Sagger-A/B') and 9P133 ('Sagger-C')
(BRDM-2 derivatives with two three-rail launchers - known users are the armies of Afghanistan, Algeria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, RFAS, Slovakia, Syria and Yugoslavia (Serbia/Montenegro) together with the RFAS Naval Infantry)
- 4x4 BOV-1 (two three-rail launchers - Yugoslav (Serbia/Montenegro) Army).