|Manufacturer:||Vickers Defence Systems Ltd.|
|Product type:||Armoured Vehicles|
|Name:||Main battle tank|
In December 1974, Iran ordered 125 Shir 1 (FV4030/2) and 1,225 Shir 2 (FV4030/3) MBTs but the order was cancelled by the new Iranian government in February 1979. The first three FV4030/2 prototypes were completed by January 1977.
By this time, production of the FV4030/2 was under way at the Royal Ordnance Factory Leeds (since taken over by Vickers Defence Systems) with first production tanks scheduled for delivery in 1980.
In November 1979, Jordan placed an order with the UK for 274 Khalid MBTs worth £266 million for delivery from 1981.
Further development of the Shir 2 (FV4030/3) resulted in the Challenger 1 MBT which entered service with the British Army in 1983 and for which there is a separate entry.
Modifications carried out since the Khalid MBT entered service with the Jordanian Army have included modifications of sights and stowage to allow for the carrying and firing of the Royal Ordnance 120 mm APFSDS-T ammunition and the upgrading of the David Brown Defence Equipment TN37 Mk 2 transmission to TN37 Mk 2A standard.
The Khalid is essentially the FV4030/2 MBT with minor modifications to suit Jordanian requirements; it is based on a late production Chieftain with major changes in the fire-control system and new power pack. The power pack consists of the Perkins Engines Company Condor V-12 1200 diesel, the David Brown Defence Equipment Limited TN37 transmission and a cooling system by Howden Aircontrol.
The Perkins Engines Company Condor V-12 1200 is a 60° V-form, 12-cylinder, direct injection, four-cycle, compression ignition engine which develops 1,200 hp at 2,300 rpm. The power packs for the Khalid (FV4030/2) and Challenger 1 are almost identical and both have twin electric starters.
The TN37 fully automatic transmission has been designed to provide four speeds forwards and three in reverse, using a three-element single-stage torque converter in conjunction with epicyclic gear trains. Steering is by regenerative double-differential type hydrostatic systems. The main vehicle service and parking brakes are incorporated within the transmission. The TN37 is arranged with a single input and two in-line outputs at right angles to the input. Flexible gear couplings are fitted to the outputs for connection to the final drives.
The cooling group essentially consists of two air-to-water radiators, two air-cooled charge air coolers and three 380 mm mixed flow fans, mounted on top of the vehicle drive transmission. Cooling air enters through armoured louvres, passes through the heat exchangers to the fans and discharges through armoured louvres. A separate fan was required for cooling the auxiliary power unit when used during the vehicle 'silent watch' situation.
The Khalid has a bogie-type suspension which is a further development of that fitted to Chieftain with nearly twice the suspension travel. The fire-control system of the Khalid is the Computer Sighting System which is similar to the Chieftain Improved Fire-Control System described in the entry for the Chieftain. The Pilkington Optronics Tank Laser
Sight is also fitted to the Khalid.
The commander's cupola is a No 15 which has been modified to accept the No 84 sight. The No 84 sight has been developed by Pilkington Optronics and is a combined day/passive night sight plus projector reticle image unit, and provides the commander with a 24 hour vision and firing capability. The No 84 sight incorporates two independent channels for day and night use and interfaces with the 120 mm L11A5 main armament via the projector reticle image unit which injects optical graticule information into the sight and also enables spot injection for the CSS. It has a fully armoured hood, can be elevated from -10 to +35° and is also provided with a wiper blade. The main armament consists of a standard 120 mm L11A5 rifled tank gun, a 7.62 mm L8A2 machine gun mounted coaxially with the main armament, a 7.62 mm L37A2 machine gun which can be aimed and fired from inside the commander's cupola and six electrically operated smoke grenade dischargers either side of the turret.
The driver can exchange the day driving periscope for a Pilkington Optronics image intensification night periscope.
Early in 1987, Jordan placed a multi-million pound order with Kidde-Graviner of the UK for its Crew Bay fire and explosion suppression system. These systems modernised Centurions, M60A1/M60A3 MBTs and the ENGESA EE-11 Urutu (6 x 6) APC ordered for police use.
Jordan has also taken delivery of a quantity of Royal Ordnance L23A1 APFSDS rounds and is considering a number of improvements for the Khalid including night vision equipment and an additional armour protection package, but funding is a problem at the present time.
Production complete. In service with the Jordanian Army. Iraq has also supplied Jordan with one Chieftain Mk 3/3(P) and 89 Mk 5/5(P) MBTs plus 60 M47s and 20 CVR(T) Scorpion vehicles. As far as is known, none of these armoured vehicles has been taken in service with the Jordanian Army.